Founding and Milestones
Since its founding in 1984, NOF has made a direct and positive impact on the lives of men and women who are affected by osteoporosis, and has alerted the nation about this major threat to our public health.
The Founding of the National Osteoporosis Foundation
In April 1984, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) held a Consensus Development Conference on Osteoporosis,* with a conference panel led by William A. Peck, M.D., who was serving as Simon Professor at the Washington University School of Medicine and Physician-in-Chief of The Jewish Hospital of St. Louis. The consensus panel included medical representatives from the fields of orthopedics, endocrinology, gynecology, rheumatology, epidemiology, nutrition, biochemistry and family medicine, as well as the general public. The panel considered current scientific knowledge on osteoporosis and agreed on answers to the following key questions:
- What is osteoporosis?
- What are the clinical features of osteoporosis, and how is it detected?
- Who is at risk for developing osteoporosis?
- What are the possible causes of osteoporosis?
- How can osteoporosis be prevented and treated?
- What are the directions for future research?
At the conclusion of the NIH Consensus Conference, a press briefing was held and widely attended by members of the media. As a result of the widespread media coverage announcing the consensus panel’s findings, major academic health centers nationwide received thousands of calls from patients and physicians alike who asked for more information on optimum approaches to the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
This led Dr. Peck, a past president of the American Society of Bone and Mineral Research, to call a meeting of leading osteoporosis researchers to discuss the overwhelming public and professional interest in the disease and to offer a strategy for responding to it. This meeting led to the establishment of The Osteoporosis Foundation, a national nonprofit voluntary health organization solely dedicated to osteoporosis and bone health. Founded in December 1984, the organization was renamed the National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) in 1985.
The milestones below provide examples of NOF’s success in advancing osteoporosis awareness, education, research and advocacy.
In April, NIH holds a Consensus Development Conference on Osteoporosis. The panel considers current scientific knowledge on osteoporosis and agrees on answers to several key questions about osteoporosis. The Osteoporosis Foundation is formed. The organization’s name is changed to the National Osteoporosis Foundation in 1985.
Federal legislation designating the first National Osteoporosis Prevention Week in May passes in Congress. NOF develops and disseminates materials for the week. NOF continues coordinating efforts to support National Osteoporosis Month, recognized each May.
NOF begins operation in Washington, D.C.
NOF, in partnership with the International Osteoporosis Foundation, begins publishing Osteoporosis International, a monthly, scientific journal dedicated to the diagnosis, treatment and management of osteoporosis.
The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) publishes Osteoporosis Research, Education and Health Promotion, a detailed review of its activities directed at reducing the prevalence of osteoporosis, in response to a directive of the U.S. Senate Appropriations Committee.
NOF successfully advocates for the passage of the “1992 Revitalization Act,” authorizing NIH to establish an information clearinghouse for osteoporosis and related bone diseases, which becomes the NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases-National Resource Center.
NOF creates and begins promoting the adoption of model state laws for osteoporosis prevention and treatment education programs and coverage of bone mineral density testing. More than 30 states have since passed these laws.
The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases awards a competitive grant to NOF, allowing it to establish the NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases-National Resource Center in partnership with the Paget Foundation and Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation. The NIH National Resource Center’s mission is to expand awareness and enhance knowledge and understanding of the prevention, early detection and treatment of osteoporosis and related bone diseases. NOF continues to operate the Center for 13 years.
NOF holds an International Symposium on Osteoporosis (ISO), bringing together a faculty of internationally renowned experts to share state-of-the-art information and research on bone health and osteoporosis prevention, diagnosis and treatment with hundreds of healthcare professionals. The ISO is the only scientific meeting in the United States to focus on osteoporosis and bone health across the lifespan. NOF continues to host the ISO.
NOF establishes the Interspecialty Medical Council (IMC) to provide a diverse and important perspective on issues of common concern around osteoporosis and bone health relating to professional practice, education and public policy.
NOF publishes its first prevalence report, revealing that 44 million women and men age 50 and older in the U.S. have or are at risk for developing osteoporosis due to low bone density.
NOF creates the Professional Partners Network® (PPN), a community-based network of affiliated hospitals, women’s clinics, physician practices and other organizations providing osteoporosis prevention and treatment services. Members receive the latest scientific and medical updates as well as patient education materials to support their clinical practice and provide the best possible care for patients.
NOF publishes the first clinical practice guidelines for osteoporosis, which were endorsed by the majority of the IMC members. The Medicare Bone Mass Measurement Coverage Standardization Act goes into effect, giving women and men age 65 and older who are at risk for osteoporosis access to bone density testing.
NOF leads the effort to secure $3 million for the first phase of a multimillion dollar National Bone Health Campaign aimed at girls ages 9-12 and their parents.
NOF leads efforts to include an “osteoporosis section” in Healthy People 2010, the nation’s blueprint for public health policy and programs.
The U.S. Preventative Services Task Force releases a recommendation that follows NOF guidelines and recommends that women aged 65+ have a bone density test.
NOF publishes America’s Bone Health: The State of Osteoporosis and Low Bone Mass In Our Nation as an update to its first prevalence report. The report reveals that by the year 2010, an estimated 52 million people age 50 and older will have osteoporosis or low bone mass.
Since the early 1990s, NOF has been recommending, commenting on and monitoring the progress of the National Committee on Quality Assurance (NCQA) to produce a Health Employer Data Information System (HEDIS), a quality of health care measure for osteoporosis. In 2003, NCQA releases a new measure that estimates the percentage of women age 67 and older in Medicare plans who, within six months after suffering a fracture, had either been given a bone mineral density test or a prescription for a drug to treat or prevent osteoporosis.
NOF is one of three grantees of the U.S. DHHS Administration on Aging grant and responsible for developing a strategy to raise awareness about osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.
U.S. Surgeon General, Vice Admiral Richard H. Carmona, M.D., M.P.H., F.A.C.S., releases Bone Health and Osteoporosis: A Report of the Surgeon General, calling for the nation to recognize the challenges of osteoporosis prevention, diagnosis and treatment, while urging improvement in health provider education, public awareness promotion and access to key health services.
NOF successfully advocates for federal funding for osteoporosis research as part of the National Coalition for Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases. At NIH, osteoporosis research funding increases to more than $190 million and at the U.S. Department of Defense, osteoporosis research is funded through two programs.
NOF’s efforts are significant in helping to increase federal funding for osteoporosis research from $5 million in 1986 to more than $191 million in 2005.
NOF and the Society for Women’s Health Research hold a briefing on Capitol Hill to inform lawmakers about recent advances in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Actress Sally Field, an osteoporosis patient and advocate, speaks at the briefing and encourages women to protect themselves against fractures.
In February, NOF releases its Clinician’s Guide to Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis. The Guide helps U.S. healthcare providers make better prevention and treatment decisions and assess fracture risk for patients with low bone mass or osteoporosis. The Guide applies the recently released algorithm on absolute fracture risk, FRAX™, prepared by the World Health Organization and adapted by NOF for the U. S.
In May, NOF launches the Legends of Osteoporosis lecture to honor prominent researchers in the field of osteoporosis.
In June, the National Coalition for Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases, a coalition comprised of leaders of four national bone organizations (NOF, American Society of Bone Mineral Research, the Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation and the Paget Foundation), meet in Washington, D.C. for a national summit to develop a coordinated national action plan to promote bone health.
In September, NOF releases the first professional guide to health insurance coverage of osteoporosis diagnosis and treatment, A Reference Guide for Osteoporosis Reimbursement Policy for Healthcare Professionals. The guide begins with an introduction to osteoporosis and a brief overview of coding, coverage and payment for the procedures, services and medications related to osteoporosis. A reimbursement tools section includes many items to help navigate coverage and reimbursement issues with public and private payers.
In October, NOF published a Spanish translation of its 100-page patient handbook, Boning Up on Osteoporosis: A Guide to Prevention and Treatment (Edúquese sobre la Osteoporosis: Guía de prevención y tratamiento).
In January, the National Action Plan for Bone Health: Recommendations from the Summit for a National Action Plan for Bone Health was published. This report was a direct outcome of the June 2008 National Action Plan for Bone Health summit that NOF and the National Coalition for Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases hosted in Washington, D.C.
In April, NOF sponsored one of the foremost international clinical meetings on osteoporosis — the 8th International Symposium on Osteoporosis (ISO8): Translating Research Into Clinical Practice. The conference brought together the world’s preeminent clinicians and scientists to report on advances and challenges in the field.
NOF serves as a founding partner of the National Bone Health Alliance (NBHA), a public-private partnership established in response to the U.S. Surgeon General’s Report on Bone Health and Osteoporosis (released October 2004) and recommendations from the 2008 Summit for a National Action Plan. NBHA brings together the expertise and resources of its member organizations to collectively promote bone health and prevent disease; improve diagnosis and treatment of bone disease; and enhance bone research, surveillance and evaluation. Now, with 47 member organizations and liaisons representing the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Institutes of Health and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, NBHA is working to bring about a shared vision: to improve the overall health and quality of life of all Americans by enhancing their bone health.
In May, NOF holds the 9th International Symposium on Osteoporosis (ISO9): Translating Research into Clinical Practice at The Cosmopolitan™ of Las Vegas in Las Vegas, NV. The event attracted hundreds of internationally renowned osteoporosis experts to share the latest clinically relevant information on osteoporosis prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Held annually, ISO aims to bridge the gap between osteoporosis research and its application in clinical practice.
Kicking off National Osteoporosis Awareness and Prevention Month in May, NOF hosted a congressional briefing on Capitol Hill with special guests Representative Michael C. Burgess, M.D (R-TX) and Representative Shelley Berkley (D-NV). The briefing, titled A Gift to Mothers, featured patients and their family members speaking about the impact of their diagnosis and NOF provided the Congressional Staff in attendance with its 2010 Survey of State Osteoporosis Activities that includes state-specific data on osteoporosis prevalence and programs.
In April, NOF holds the 10th International Symposium on Osteoporosis: Translating Research Into Clinical Practice at the Peabody Hotel in Orlando, Florida. The event once again brought together hundreds of leading experts on osteoporosis and bone health for an opportunity to catch up on the latest clinically relevant information on osteoporosis prevention, diagnosis and treatment.
In December, NOF releases new data showing no link between calcium supplementation and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The reanalysis of data from the Women’s Health Initiative, one of the largest clinical trials of more than 36,000 postmenopausal women, also showed that those women who complied with taking 1,000 milligrams of calcium and 400 International Units of vitamin D supplements daily for five or more years, reduced their risk for hip fracture by 38 percent.
Renamed the Interdisciplinary Symposium on Osteoporosis to reflect the diverse team of healthcare professionals required to effectively manage and treat osteoporosis, NOF holds its annual meeting in Chicago from April 18-21. The meeting drew hundreds of diverse healthcare professionals for an opportunity to network, collaborate and learn the most effective ways of preventing, treating and diagnosing osteoporosis.
Also in April, NOF releases an update to its prevalence data revealing that an estimated 10.2 million adults in the U.S. have osteoporosis and another 43.4 million have low bone mass. This means 54 million U.S. adults, representing 50 percent of the U.S. adult population, are at risk of breaking a bone and should be concerned about their bone health. In response, NOF launches Break Free from Osteoporosis, a national awareness campaign calling on the public to learn about their risk factors for osteoporosis and make the lifestyle changes needed to protect against it.
* The Consensus Development Program (CDP) is an unbiased, independent, evidence-based assessment of complex medical issues and is conducted by the National Institutes of Health (NIH).The program has operated since 1977. Each conference is jointly sponsored and administered by one or more Institutes or Centers (ICs) of NIH and by the Office of Medical Applications of Research (OMAR) in the Office of the Director of NIH. Depending on the topic, other Federal agencies with biomedical components may join in sponsoring a CDP conference. In conjunction with each conference, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) provides a systematic review of literature on the conference topic through one of its Evidence-Based Practice Centers.
Our Commitment to Research
For 30 years, NOF has been committed to preventing broken bones and osteoporosis through education, advocacy and research. As the source of strength for the millions living with this disease, NOF is committed to establishing a gold standard of care for everyone affected by osteoporosis and advancing prevention strategies to eliminate the disease for future generations. We’re making advances and discoveries every day and need your support to reach our goals.
Our current research endeavors include:
ASBMR-NOF Task Force on the Goals of Osteoporosis Treatment
The American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR) and the National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) established a Task Force to consider setting treatment targets to guide clinical decisions on the selection of initial treatment for osteoporosis and whether or when to change treatment according to the individual’s risk of fracture. The Task Force members were selected for their expertise and clinical experience in the management of osteoporosis. They represent a broad array of primary care and specialist clinicians and experts in epidemiology and ethics from the United States, Canada, Europe, Australia/New Zealand, and Japan. The Task Force has no representatives from and receives no funding from the pharmaceutical industry.
Ideally, recommendations about selecting and changing osteoporosis treatment should be based on evidence comparing anti-fracture efficacy. However, this evidence is limited. Therefore, at this stage, proposals about treatment goals and targets would necessarily be based at least in part on expert judgment. This represents a first step in an iterative process of recommendations, to be followed by collecting additional evidence for subsequent updates of the recommendations when appropriate.
The initial report of the Task Force was reviewed by both ASBMR and NOF and summary reports submitted back to the Task Force Co-chairs. The report was presented at ASBMR in September 2014.
A manuscript will be finalized and submitted to both JBMR and Osteoporosis International for peer review and subsequent publication.
NOF Prevalence Working Group
The objective of the NOF Prevalence Working Group is to establish the current prevalence of osteoporosis in the U.S. based on the 2010 census. Utilizing the rates of osteoporosis and low bone density from the latest NHANES survey, calculations were made for the population as a whole, and sub-populations including gender, age and ethnicity (Phase 1). Current work (Phase 2) involves calculating the prevalence of osteoporosis in the institutionalized, long-term care population. The paper reporting the Phase 1 outcomes has been accepted for publication in JBMR and is available for review online. Phase 2 is ongoing and additional funding support is being requested. Results will included in a manuscript summarizing the findings with publication to follow.
Calcium plus Vitamin D Supplementation and Risk of Fractures: An Updated Meta-Analysis from the National Osteoporosis Foundation
Researchers/Authors: Connie Weaver, PhD; Dominik D. Alexander, PhD, MSPH; Carol J. Boushey, PhD, MPH, RD; Bess Dawson-Hughes, MD; Joan M. Lappe, PhD; Meryl S. LeBoff, MD; Anne C. Looker, PhD; Taylor C. Wallace, PhD
Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation has been widely recommended to prevent osteoporosis and subsequent fractures; however, considerable controversy exists regarding the association of calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and fracture risk. In 2013, the U.S. Preventative Services Task Force published a recommendation statement advising that “daily supplementation with 400 IU of vitamin D3 and 1,000 mg of calcium has no effect on the incidence of fractures in postmenopausal women.”
To clarify controversy in this area, NOF updated a former evidence report published in 2011 by the U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality with new clinical trial data. These results strongly suggest that calcium plus vitamin D supplementation can significantly reduce the risk of total fractures by 16% and hip fractures by 32%. The manuscript has been submitted to a peer-reviewed journal.
Peak Bone Mass
Researchers/Authors: Connie Weaver, PhD; Catherine M. Gordon, MD; Kathleen F Janz, PhD; Heidi J. Kalkwarf, PhD; Joan M. Lappe, PhD; Richard D. Lewis, PhD, RD; Megan O’Karma, MS; Taylor C. Wallace, PhD; Babette S. Zemel, PhD;
Low bone density is an increasingly apparent public health threat that has been associated with suboptimal nutrition and physical activity patterns among all age groups. Total skeletal mass and its ability to achieve full genetic potential peaks in an individual’s mid-20’s and can stay relatively constant until the age of menopause in women and a few years later in men. The purpose of the peak bone mass initiative is to define and optimize controllable influences on bone accumulation throughout the early lifespan towards preventing the onset of osteoporosis or osteoporotic fracture later in life.
Using an evidence based systematic approach, NOF is in the process of developing a position statement in collaboration with the American Society for Nutrition that will set forth optimal intakes of foods and define physical activity patterns for individuals from childhood through adolescent years to optimize bone health and maximize outcomes during all life stages.
The previous Peak Bone Mass manuscript published by an NOF author group in 2000 has been cited in more than 650 PubMed indexed manuscripts. The previous manuscript has been used in policy development by numerous government agencies such as the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and by external advisory groups such as the U.S. Institute of Medicine (IOM), Food and Nutrition Board.
A Systematic Review of Calcium Supplements and Kidney Stone Risk
Researchers: Michael Lewis, MS; Taylor C. Wallace, PhD
Analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) shows that roughly 43% of the U.S. population report use of supplemental calcium; the most common subpopulations reporting use are middle aged and elderly women. NHANES also reports that greater than 12% of men and 6% of women in the general population will develop a kidney stone(s) during their lifetime. Kidney stone formation has been commonly thought to be related to high calcium intakes, particularly supplemental intakes.
Original findings from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI), the largest randomized, placebo-controlled trial of over 36,000 healthy postmenopausal women who were administered supplemental calcium and vitamin D daily for seven years, served as an important pillar for the basis of this proposed correlation. However, contrary to the original analysis, recent data from the WHI reporting kidney stone incidence in the a subset of individuals who exhibited continued adherence to calcium supplements (defined as taking 80% or more of the assigned study pills) found no increase in kidney stone development. Since the original WHI data was published, several new studies that indicate high calcium intakes (particularly intake from supplements) may actually decrease kidney stone risk have become available in peer-reviewed literature. Compilation of the entire body of data is essential to our understanding of this potential interaction. Thus, NOF has undertaken a systematic review of both clinical and population studies to assess whether calcium supplementation promotes or prevents the development of kidney stones.
Through our nationwide network of support groups and our Inspire online support community, we offer opportunities for people living with osteoporosis to connect – both in person and online – to share experiences and advice with one another.
And we take what we learn from you in these settings to inform the research that’s needed most. For example, we knew many of you were concerned and confused by the recent media reports linking calcium to heart disease and related conditions and we did our own research to get to the bottom of the issue. NOF commissioned a re-analysis of the Women’s Health Initiative study and we were able to announce our own study results showing no connection between calcium supplements and heart disease risk.
Every year NOF hosts the Interdisciplinary Symposium on Osteoporosis (ISO), bringing together top osteoporosis experts to collaborate and share how the latest advances in clinical research can be translated into better patient care. At our annual face-to-face meeting we connect hundreds of health professionals with the information they need to better treat their patients and provide motivation for top osteoporosis researchers to continue their efforts to find ways to better diagnose, treat and manage this disease.
As the only national organization exclusively dedicated to preventing osteoporosis, NOF formed the National Bone Health Alliance (NBHA), a public private partnership that brings together expertise and resources to collectively promote bone health and prevent disease; improve diagnosis and treatment of bone disease; and enhance bone research, surveillance and evaluation. With more than 50 participating members working together, NBHA is addressing the nearly 80% post-fracture care gap through an initiative to spark wider implementation of fracture liaison service (FLS) programs to ensure that every patient age 50 and older who presents with a fracture undergoes osteoporosis assessment. The program measures the effectiveness of nurses working with patients after they’ve broken a bone to ensure they receive the treatment and support needed to diagnose and treat osteoporosis, if detected, in order to prevent additional broken bones and the suffering that comes with them. NOF also collaborates with NBHA on various research projects.
We’re also the only group in the country that analyzes the toll of osteoporosis to ensure we have reliable numbers representing those suffering from and at-risk of osteoporosis. Our recently released prevalence data provides a new baseline number representing all of you with osteoporosis and low bone mass and gives us a standard we can measure our preventative efforts against going forward. With more than 54 million adults at-risk for osteoporosis, it’s more important than ever that we work to ensure preventative measures are taken early in life to protect those with low bone mass from developing osteoporosis and breaking bones.
We Need You
Your help and support is critical to advance our research and discoveries to support current osteoporosis patients and prevent the disease for future generations. Please donate today or learn more about how you can join our efforts by participating in a local support group, joining the Inspire online community, hosting an event and more.
NOF has recognized champions of osteoporosis awareness, education, advocacy and research for many years and at various events. We thank these individuals and corporate partners for their remarkable service and dedication to bone health.
Ethel S. Siris, M.D. – Ethel LeFrak Award
Gail Sheehy – The Generation Award
Felicia Cosman, M.D. – The Generation Award
Barbara Hannah Grufferman – The Generation Award
Jane Hanson – The Generation Award
Honorable Daniel A. Mica – Paul G. Rogers Leadership
Mercedes Ellington – Ethel LeFrak Award
Sally Fullman – Steps for Strong Bones Award
C. Conrad Johnston, Jr., M.D. – Legends of Osteoporosis Award
Stephen I. Katz, M.D., Ph.D. – Paul G. Rogers Leadership Award
Freda Lewis-Hall, M.D. – Paul G. Rogers Leadership Award
Lisa Oz– The Generation Award
Berdon & Rolanette Lawrence– Innovation Award
Cloris Leachman– Ethel LeFrak Award
Senator Blanche L. Lincoln – Paul G. Rogers Leadership Award
Lawrence G. Raisz, M.D. – Legends of Osteoporosis Award
Marybeth and JC Bond – The Generation Award
Matilda Cuomo – The Generation Award
Dr. Max Gomez – The Generation Award
Phil & Jan Fenty – Steps for Strong Bones Award
Sally Field – Ethel LeFrak Award
Michelle King Robson – Health Communications Award
Honorable Paul G. Rogers – In Memorium
Eli Lilly and Company – Corporate Leadership Award
Marie Savard, M.D.– The Generation Award
Paula Zahn – The Generation Award
Congressman Michael C. Burgess, M.D. – Paul G. Rogers Leadership Award
Grace Palmer – Strong Women Stand Tall Award
Libby Pataki – Ethel LeFrak Award
Wyeth Pharmaceuticals – Corporate Leadership Award
Jane E. Brody– The Generation Award
Margo Catsimatidis– The Generation Award
Mary and Carol Higgins Clark– The Generation Award
Ivana Trump– The Generation Award
Congresswoman Shelley Berkley – Paul G. Rogers Leadership Award
Sundeep Khosla, MD – Innovation Award
Antonia Novello, MD – Ethel LeFrak Award
Miss Toni Stabile – Health Communications Award
Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation – Corporate Leadership Award
Buzz Aldrin, PhD – Ethel LeFrak Award
Senator Olympia Snowe – Paul G. Rogers Leadership Award
Paula Zahn – Excellence in Health Communications Award
Pfizer Inc – Corporate Leadership Award
Camilla, HRH The Duchess of Cornwall – Ethel LeFrak Award
Janet Hubert – Champion Award
Matthew Margo of CBS Cares – Paul G. Rogers Leadership Award
Joan Rivers – Innovation Award
Eli Lilly and Company – Corporate Leadership Award
VADM Richard Carmona, MD – Paul G. Rogers Leadership Award
Mrs. Ethel LeFrak – Women of Substance Award
Dr. Richard U. Levine – Osteoporosis Outreach Award
Honorable Ann Richards – Excellence in Communications Award
Honorable Paul G. Rogers – Special Tribute
Merck & Co., Inc. – Corporate Leadership Award
Jill Eikenberry and Michael Tucker – Excellence in Health Communications Award
Honorable Tommy G. Thompson – National Leadership Award
Aventis – Corporate Leadership Award
Florence Henderson – Advocacy Award
Jennifer Holliday – Appreciation Award
Sandra Raymond – Founding Executive Director Award
Cokie Roberts – Leadership Award
Wyeth Pharmaceuticals – Corporate Leadership Award
Linda Dano – Women’s Health Leadership Award
Peggy Fleming Jenkins – Women’s Health Leadership Award
Lauren Hutton – Women’s Health Leadership Award
Rita Moreno – Women’s Health Leadership Award
Procter & Gamble Pharmaceuticals – Corporate Leadership Award
Katie Couric – Women’s Leadership Award
Senator John H. Glenn – National Leadership Award
Robert Lindsay, MD, PhD – Scientific Leadership Award
Eli Lilly and Company – Corporate Leadership Award
Edward Albee – Arts and Humanities Leadership Award
James A. Johnson of Fannie Mae – National Leadership Award in Osteoporosis
Lesley Stahl – Women’s Leadership Award
Jane E. Brody
Peggy Fleming Jenkins
William A. Peck, MD
B. Lawrence Riggs, MD
John R. Stafford of American Home Products Corp.
Honorable Paul G. Rogers
Mary Woodard Lasker (Special Tribute)
Helen Hayes MacArthur (Special Tribute)
Bernadine Healy, MD